禮拜儀式的期限詞彙: K - O
經常包括八或九的讚美詩, 和很少, 四, 三或二 抒情詩, 附屬對被紀念的場合或聖徒。 各首抒情詩包括幾stanzas 或 troparia; 在俄國教會的實踐, 一這些troparia, heirmos, 唱歌, 當其他通常讀。 每個九首抒情詩被仿造在一canticle 以後從聖潔聖經, 與一次舊約事件關係擔當一次新約事件的型。 充分的k 。' s, 概括來說, 有九首抒情詩, 但第二首抒情詩很快下跌從用途。 殘缺不全的k 。 被命名a tetraodion, triodion, 或 diodion, 依靠是否它包括四首, 三首, 或二首抒情詩。
Kant (pl. kanty 或kanti) 回到頁首
類型polyphonic 額外禮拜儀式的歌曲, 是普遍在俄國、烏克蘭, 和白俄羅斯在17 第18 個世紀。 最初, k 。 組成了在宗教文本(神聖 或 精神k 。); 在第18 c 。, 事項來包括愛國, 每天, 和浪漫題材。 用音樂術語, k 。 為3 部份紋理描繪, 以名列前茅二聲音和低音聲音的平行的行動提供一個泛音基礎; 並且一個正直的詞組結構, 包括, 概括來說, 二到四行文本以節奏在他們之間; 有並且4 聲音k 。 一些k 。 以"kantyczki 著名適應了從波蘭人歌曲," 從哪些期限"kant" 被獲得。
katabasia (katavasia) 回到頁首
重複 heirmos 被給 抒情詩 kanon 或唱歌heirmos 從其它kanon (根據Typikon) 在一首指定的抒情詩的最後troparion 以後。 希臘詞 vkatabasia, 意味"一起來" 或"下來," 提到加入二個唱詩班在教會的中心執行這些讚美詩。
Kathisma (pl. kathismata 或kathismas) 回到頁首
分裂 Psalter, 發起於巴勒斯坦用法: 有20 k 。, 每個被細分入三所謂 antiphons. 處方在Typikon 讀k 。 在Vespers 的選定的片刻, Matins, 和在借期間, 在小時, 反射一個predominantely monastic 用途。
Kathisma 讚美詩(sessional 讚美詩, sedalen) 回到頁首
讚美詩唱歌在或在期間你也許坐的讀書在, i 以後前。 e 。, Psalter 的kathismata 並且聖潔聖經的各種各樣的解釋, 聖徒生活, 宴餐的歷史(以synaxaria 著名)
Kievan 歌頌 回到頁首
的西南區域作為變形 znamenny 歌頌, 和然後傳播對白雲母俄國在第17 c 。 K 曲調。 c 。 比znamenny 曲調節奏性地傾向於是短和簡單; 分別之間背誦像和melismatic 段落是更加發出音的; 並且文本某些詞組被重覆, 某事不發生在znamenny 歌頌Novgorodian 和白雲母唱歌大師。 K 曲調。 c 。, 很大程度上, 起依據作用對於所謂"共同" 歌頌.
Kievan 記法 回到頁首
kliros (還krilos) (pl. klirosi) 回到頁首
(1) 特別區域, 通常被舉起, 對iconostasis 的正確和左邊, 歌手站立在儀式期間; (2) 歌手合奏在kliros (參見 唱詩班)
Kondakar ' 回到頁首
一早期俄國禮拜儀式歌頌書, 包含 kontakia 並且其它讚美詩notated kontakarian 記法 並且執行在樣式 kondakarian 唱歌. 五這樣的k 。 生存了, 建於早期12 對早期的13 世紀。
Kondakarian 記法 回到頁首
最舊的類型音樂記法的當中一個在Kievan Rus 的,
從Byzantium 被進口在基督教被接受了時候。 K 。 n 。
is found in collections of kontakia, known as Kondakari, from which it derives its name. K. n. is ideographic by nature, and consists of two rows of neumes above the line of text.
Kondakarian Singing Back to Top
one of the types of liturgical singing that arose in Kievan Rus' following Byzantine models. K. s. was by nature quite melismatic and was performed in solo fashion by virtuoso singers, while the congregation sang refrains. It was used to perform kontakia, Communion Hymns, and select verses from the Psalms. K. s. and its notation fell from use in the 14th c., although some scholars, e. g., J. von Gardner, believe that certain elements of it survived in the demestvenny chant.
Kontakion (kondakion) (pl. kontakia) Back to Top
in its original form, a hymn that consisted of a long homiletic series of stanzas called oikoi, usually numbering 24 (the length of the Greek alphabet). Each stanza ended with the same refrain. The greater number of the most ancient k. are ascribed to St. Roman the Melodist. In modern usage, for each liturgical occasion only the first stanza and a single oikos remain, sung after the sixth ode of the kanon at Matins, and occasionally after the third as well; in this abridged form the k. is also sung at the Divine Liturgy after the appointed troparia.
Kontsert Back to Top
see sacred concerto
Krestobogorodichen Back to Top
Kriuk notation Back to Top
see neumatic notation
Leave-Taking of a Feast Back to Top
the last day of the post-feast, on which the Typikon sometimes prescribes serving essentially the same service as on the first day of the feast
Lenten Triodion Back to Top
one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which contains hymns and prayers proper to the period of Lent and Passion Week; the L. T. begins with the fourth Sunday before Lent -- the "Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee" -- and concludes with Holy Saturday. There are two types of L. T.: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, in which the texts are supplied with musical notation. The earliest notated versions of the L. T. in the Russian Church arose in the 12th c., as part of the so-called "Triodic Sticherarion." The first printed edition of a notated L. T. in Russia, entitled "Triodion, sirech' Tripesnets," was published in square notation in 1772. The name Triodion stems from the fact that many of the kanons in it contain only three odes.
Litany Back to Top
any of a series of petitions said by the priest or deacon to which is sung in response a short prayer such as "Lord, have mercy" or "Grant it, O Lord" or "To Thee, O Lord." The Great Litany or Litany of Peace, which has approximately 10 petitions, is very ancient and represents the common prayer of all the faithful; the Little Litany, which consists of 3 petitions, is used primarily as a link between various hymns; the Augmented Litany is so called because of its oft-repeated threefold "Lord, have mercy"; the Litany of Supplication includes "Grant it, O Lord" as a response. There are also l.'s for the Departed, which include special petitions for the deceased, and various adaptations of the above for different occasions. L.'s are sung at the All-Night Vigil, the Divine Liturgy, and at various occasional services, such as memorials, weddings, baptisms, funerals, etc.
Little Entrance Back to Top
a procession with the Gospel book during the first part of the Divine Liturgy, which begins during the third antiphon and concludes during the entrance hymn "Come, let us worship"
Little Znamenny Chant Back to Top
one of the varieties of znamenny chant, characterized by brevity of melodic development and prevalence of recitative (see also great znamenny chant)
LiturgyBack to Top
a word derived from the Greek word for "public service" or "common service." In a general sense, this term refers to any public Christian worship service. In the Orthodox Church it most frequently is used, in capitalized form, in reference to the Eucharist.
Lity (litiya) Back to Top
(1) a festive procession to the narthex, accompanied by common penitential prayers with "Lord, have mercy" sung many times over. The l. is commonly served in the latter half of Great Vespers on the eve of great feasts. During the procession special stichera at the Lity are sung, which pertain to the occasion being celebrated. (2) a brief form of the Memorial Service, which consists of the Trisagion and troparia for the departed
Matins Back to Top
the morning service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, which consists of sung and read troparia, psalms, kanons, stichera, and other hymns, as well as litanies (see also All-Night Vigil)
Melody Back to Top
a term that refers to specific tunes or categories of tunes within a chant system, e. g., a "Solovetsk Monastery melody" or the "Greek chant troparion melody in the 1st Tone" (see also chant)
Memorial Service (Panikhida, Parastas) Back to Top
a service commemorating the departed, which consists essentially of the Trisagion, troparia, and a kanon (usually in abridged form), as well as special prayers and litanies; structurally, it resembles the Matins service
Menaion Back to Top
a liturgical book that contains services for every day of the liturgical year; usually comprises 12 volumes, one for each month. There is also a General Menaion, which contains services for various categories of saints, e. g., apostles, martyrs, hierarchs, etc. The M. exists in two forms: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, which also contains musical notation.
Moleben Back to Top
see Prayer Service
Neumatic Notation Back to Top
a general term used with reference to staffless musical notations (in Russia -- the znamenny, demestvenny, and put'), which were used to notate hymns by means of special ideographic signs (neumes), written above the verbal text
Nocturns Back to Top
one of the lesser services in the daily cycle of Orthodox services, which is served before Matins; there are several varieties of N.: daily, Saturday, Sunday, and Paschal
Obikhod Back to Top
one of the liturgical chant books of the Russian Orthodox Church, which developed in the second half of the 15th-early 16th centuries, and which contains the hymns of the Ordinary for Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy, as well as the main hymns of the Proper from the Octoechos, Heirmologion, and Festal Menaion. The first printed edition of the O., the "Obikhod notnago peniya," in square notation, was published in 1772. In the western Ukrainian branch of the Orthodox Church chant books having the contents of the O. were called "Irmologi."
Obychniy Chant Back to Top
see "Common" chant
Octoechos Back to Top
one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, of Palestinian origin, which contains the hymns of Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy that follow the eight-week-long cycle connected with the system of Eight Tones. These include: various sets of stichera (at "Lord, I call," aposticha, at the "Praises"), dismissal troparia, kontakia, kathisma hymns, prokeimena, and other elements of Sunday and daily services. The O. exists in two forms: a reader's version, which contains only the texts, and a singer's version, which also contains musical notation; the singer's O. contains only the hymns for resurrectional (Sunday) services and is, therefore, considerably shorter than the reader's O. In the Russian Church the singer's O. developed in the second half of the 15th - early 16th centuries; the first printed edition of the latter, the "Oktoikh notnago peniya, sirech' Osmoglasnik," in square notation, was published in 1772. It contains the aforementioned hymns in znamenny chant, as well as pattern melodies (prosomoia, podobny) that belong to each of the Eight Tones.
Ode Back to Top
one of the component parts of a kanon, which consists of the heirmos and the troparia that follow it
Office of Holy Friday Matins Back to Top
the service at which are read 12 Gospel readings relating the events of Christ's Passion, from the Mystical Supper to His death and burial; also known as the "service of the 12 Gospels"
Oikos or Ikos Back to Top
a specially constructed stanza, in honor of a particular feast, which is sung, together with the kontakion,after the 6th ode of the kanon. The o. develops the ideas expressed in the kontakion and, as a rule, concludes with the same words as the kontakion.
Oktoikh (Osmoglasnik, Oktay) Back to Top
Old Ritualists (Old Believers) Back to Top
a faction of clergy and laity of the Russian Orthodox Church that did not accept the church reforms instituted by Patriarch Nikon in the 1650s, and also protested against innovations in the customs and civic life of Russia. As a result of severe persecution, the O. R.'s settled in the frontier regions and also fled abroad. They may be divided into two major categories -- those having a hierarchy and a priesthood (popovtsy) and those that are priestless (bezpopovtsy); both groups comprise numerous factions and subgroups. For the most part, the O. R.'s did not embrace either polyphony or staff notation, but have continued to preserve the unison chants notated in staffless neumatic notation to this day.
Order of Service Back to Top
the order for a given office, as prescribed in the Typikon; the ordo. In some cases -- the actual prayer and hymns that comprise a particular service, e. g., the "Order of Service for the Burial of a Priest"
Osmoglasiye Back to Top
see Eight Tones
Osmoglasnik Back to Top
(1) see Octoechos (2) a sticheron in which the modes or melodic formulae of all Eight Tones are used in succession, creating a type of melodic modulation