禮拜儀式的期限詞彙: P - T
Partesny 唱歌(Partesny Polyphony) 回到頁首
樣式polyphonic 唱歌, 根據和諧和對位聲部西歐系統, 出現在早期的第17 c 。 在烏克蘭和在中間第17 c 。 傳播對白雲母俄國。 那個期間的主導的理論家和作曲家, 尼古拉?Diletsky, 被區別二類型polyphony 在p 。 s 。: "自然" ("prostoyestestvennoye"), 所有聲音連續唱歌和同時發音詞, 並且"共同安排了" ("boritel'noye" 或"kontsertovoye"), 不同的小組聲音或不同的唱詩班唱歌在疊更並且動機模仿治療導致文本發音在不同的時刻。 工作在p 樣式。 s 。 組成了在禮拜儀式和非禮拜儀式的(和例如, 世俗) 文本所有方式, 為聲音補全範圍從三聲音(e. g 。, kanty) 對polychoral 協奏曲為8, 12, 16, 24 (和在一個知道的案件-- 48) 聲音。 p 樣式。 s 。 忍受直到第18 c 的結尾。
Paschal 午夜服務 回到頁首
辦公室複合體服務在聖潔Pasch (復活的) 第一天。 P 。 m 。 s 。 由Paschal Nocturns, 在之後, 在午夜, Paschal 在之前 十字架的隊伍 發生; 這由Paschal Matins 、Paschal 小時, 和儀式跟隨St 。 約翰?Chrysostom 。
在星期五一晚上服務, 特別普遍在烏克蘭和白俄羅斯, 服務借, 基督的痛苦福音書帳戶讀
仿造曲調[ 技術] (Prosomoion, Podoben) 回到頁首
一個作文技術藉以幾公尺相同節執行對同樣基本的"樣式" 曲調。 這個設備突出地被使用了在 kontakia St 。 Romanos Melodos, 隨後stanzas 唱歌對第一kontakion 的曲調; 之後, 某些讚美詩開始被使用作為公尺和旋律模型和被選定了作為"prosomoia," 我。 e 。, 樣式曲調新讚美詩將執行。 雖然俄國人採取了兩個p 的原則。 m 。' s 和具體模型從希臘教會, 收效公尺樣式的中斷的指定當希臘文本被翻譯了成教會Slavonic 做它必要為俄國作曲家創造他們自己的土產p 。 m 。' s, 是更多背誦像在字符和能容納變化syllabic 結構文本。 (參見也 avtomelon; idiomelon)
讚美詩執行了在Matins 由詩歌讚美詩組成134 [ 135 ]
並且135 [ 136 ] 以疊句"Alleluia 。"期限從希臘詞被獲得 多"-- 許多和 eleo"-- 慈悲, 由於詞組的multifold 重複" 為他的慈悲永遠忍受。"在唱歌p 期間。 僧侶處理對教會的中部並且所有光在寺廟是點燃了。
Popevka (pl. Popevki) 回到頁首
一致的旋律輪或慣例在早期的俄國教會裡唱歌, 起積木作用對於曲調 znamenny 並且其他歌頌。 P 。 被分類根據 口氣; 各口氣由p 區別。 那更加頻繁地發生在它比在其它口氣; 一些口氣有更多p 。 比其他人。 基本的p 。 znamenny 歌頌被收集了 azbuki, 通認 kokizniki. 有並且p 其它類別。 -- litsa 並且 fity -- 被使用如同旋律裝飾品歌頌, 但沒有構成他們的根本組分。
一到七天的期間(在Pasch -- 40 天的情況下) 跟隨greatfeast, 在一些方面構成宴餐的繼續。 在p 期間。- f 。 某些歡樂的讚美詩繼續唱歌。
Prayer Service (Moleben) Back to Top
a service offered in response to a individual need or special occasion, e. g., illness, thanksgiving, the beginning of some task. The structure of the P. S. resembles Matins: essentially, it consists of the Trisagion, troparia, a Gospel reading, special prayers and litanies, and a kanon (usually in abridged form). Sometimes a P. S. is combined with a procession of the Cross.
Prazdniki Back to Top
see Festal Menaion
Pre-feast Back to Top
a period of one or several days prior to a great feast, which serves as a preparation for the celebration; during the p.-f. special hymns and prayers are prescribed.
Presanctified Gifts, Liturgy of the Back to Top
a communion service joined to Vespers which is served on the Wednesdays and Fridays of Great Lent and on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of Passion Week; so called because the Holy Gifts for these communion services are consecrated at the Divine Liturgy of the preceding Sunday.
Procession of the Cross Back to Top
a solemn procession of clergy and laity, at the head of which is carried the Holy Cross, banners, icons, etc. C. p. always occur at the end of the Matins of Holy Saturday (the "Burial of Christ") and on the Holy Pasch (Resurrection) at the beginning of the Paschal Midnight Service; besides those occasions, they are held on parish feast-days and on other solemn occasions, as determined by the priest-in-charge.
Processional Back to Top
see entrance hymn
Prokeimenon (Prokimenon) (pl. Prokeimena) Back to Top
a form of responsorial singing consisting of a psalm-verse refrain and, by extension -- the entire psalm and refrain; so called because in ancient Constantinopolitan usage the psalm-verse refrain was given before (pro) the text (keimenon) of the psalm. In the liturgy the p. can stand alone, as at Vespers, or be used in conjunction with readings from Scripture, where its original function was that of a prayerful and didactic respite from the rigors of attentive listening to Scripture. P. are sung on special melodies according to the Tones: after the reader intones the verse, the p. is repeated in sung fashion; then one or several other verses are chanted, and the p. is repeated after each one. Finally, half of the p. verse is read, while the singers conclude the second half, and the Scripture reading begins.
Prosomoion Back to Top
see pattern melody [technique]
Psalm Back to Top
an ancient Hebraic hymn that has, in various instances, a doxological, penitential, didactic, or messianic content. In many respects, psalms served as models for the composition of new Christian hymns, and also came to be incorporated as important elements into all forms of the Christian liturgy. Following Hebraic antecedents, the Christians developed various styles of performing psalms: psalmodic chanting by one or several singers, antiphonal singing by two singers or groups, and responsorially -- when a single singer chanted the verses of a p. and the congregation responded with a refrain. Some p.'s (or select verses) constitute hymns of the Ordinary in Orthodox services; others are hymns of the Proper for specific feasts.
Psalms of Typika Back to Top
psalms 102  and 145 , which, together with the Beatitudes, constitute the first part of Typika, a brief service of monastic origin. In current Russian practice Typika is served before the Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts, and the p. of T. and the Beatitudes generally replace the first, second, and third antiphons at Divine Liturgy.
Psalter Back to Top
the book of the Bible that contains the 150 psalms, including the psalms of David, Moses, Asaph, the Levitic psalms, and others.
Put' (putevoy) chant Back to Top
a variant of znamenny chant, found in MSS from the last quarter of the 15th c. onward. By the early 17th c. all categories of singers' books had been set in p. c.
There are currently no terms under the section "Q" Back to Top
There are currently no terms under the section "R" Back to Top
Sacred Concerto Back to Top
a piece of sacred music composed on a text that may be liturgical or non-liturgical (e. g., from the Psalms), which was sung after the Communion Hymn during the communion of the clergy at the Divine Liturgy. Sometimes hymns from other services, e. g., the All-Night Vigil, are sung as s. c.'s.
Samoglasen Back to Top
Samopodoben Back to Top
Sedalen Back to Top
see kathisma hymn
Sessional hymn Back to Top
see kathisma hymn
Six Psalms (Hexapsalmos) Back to Top
the suite of six psalms read at the start of Matins: 3, 37 , 62 , 87 , 102 , and 142 
Slavnik Back to Top
Square Notation (Square-Note Notation, Square Notes) Back to Top
a five-line staff notation that replaced medieval neumatic notation in Russian church singing of the the second half of the 17th c. In its essential details, s. n. resembles the staff notation used in Western European sacred and secular music of the 16th-17th c. In the Russian Church, s. n. was first used in western Ukrainian Heirmologia written at the turn of the 17th c. Completely replacing staffless notation, s. n. was used in the printed liturgical chant books that began to be published by the Holy Synod in 1772, and continued to be used in chant books until 1917. In contrast to modern-day (round-note) musical notation, the notes of s. n. are square- and diamond-shaped and are written, as a rule, in alto clef.
Stavrotheotokion Back to Top
a type of sticheron in which the Mother of God is described standing before the Cross and lamenting the suffering of Jesus Christ
Sticheron (pl. Stichera) Back to Top
a term of Palestinian origin signifying a hymn of several (usually 8 to 12) lines, written (in the Greek original) in a specific meter. S., as a rule, are written in cycles devoted to a particular occasion or saint, and are performed in alternation with verses of various psalms. In liturgical books s. have a designation of Tone, and sometimes, a pattern melody, to which they are to be sung. The following cycles of s. may be identified: stichera on the Beatitudes, which are actually troparia taken from the 3rd and 6th odes of kanons, sung in alternation with the verses from the Gospel of St. Matthew (5:3-12); stichera at "Lord, I call", which are sung at Vespers following the initial verses of Psalm 140 , and are inserted after verses of Psalms 141 , 129 , or 116 , depending on the number of s. (between 4 and 10) specified in the Typikon; stichera at the Lity, which are sung during the procession of the clergy from the altar to the narthex and do not have any psalm verses associated with them; stichera aposticha, which are sung at Vespers following verses selected in accordance with the occasion being celebrated, and also at daily Matins after verses 16-18 of Psalm 88 ; stichera at the Praises, between 4 and 6 s., which are sung at the end of Matins, after Psalms 148, 149, and 150. There is also a special cycle of Resurrectional Gospel stichera, which correspond to the cycle of 11 Gospel readings at Sunday Matins and are sung after "Glory" following the stichera at the Praises. Besides s. that form specific cycles, there are also s. that stand alone at various services, e. g., stichera after Psalm 50, sung at Matins of the twelve major feasts, and other individual s. that take their name from their content: theotokia, in honor of the Theotokos; theotokia dogmatica, honoring the Theotokos and relating the dogma of Christ's two natures; anastasima, honoring the Resurrection, stavrotheotokia, which speak of the Theotokos at the Cross of Jesus; stavroanastasima, which speak of the Cross and the Resurrection; triadika, in honor of the Trinity; nekrosima, in honor of the departed; martyrika, in honor of martyrs.
Sticherarion Back to Top
a liturgical chant book of the Orthodox Church, which contains stichera and other hymns of the Proper from the yearly cycle. S. varied in content: some contained only stichera of the twelve major feasts, others -- stichera from the Lenten and Festal Triodia, the Octoechos, or the Menaia. In time, the contents of the S. were distributed among other liturgical chant books; in Russia, only handwritten s. have survived. (119R)
Stolp Notation Back to Top
see znamenny notation, neumatic notation
Strochny Singing Back to Top
a type of polyphonic singing that developed in the Russian Orthodox Church in the 16th and 17th centuries. The polyphonic texture in s. s. is formed by the addition of a vocal line either above the basic chant, or below it, but most frequently, both above and below, forming a 3-voiced texture; the basic melody is termed the put', the melody above it -- the verkh, and the melody below -- the niz. There are also examples of 4-part s. s., in which the fourth voice is called the demestvo. In the history of Russian church singing, two basic types of s. s. developed: (1) znamenny polyphony, in which the movement of the voices basically follows the put', and (2) demestvenny polyphony, in which the voices have greater independence and variety of movement than in znamenny polyphony.
Svetilen Back to Top
Theotokos (lit. God-Bearer) Back to Top
the term used by the Orthodox Church for the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Jesus Christ
Theotokion (pl. Theotokia) Back to Top
a hymn in honor of the Theotokos that usually concludes a cycle of stichera or troparia. There are several categories of t.: resurrectional theotokia, which are sung after "Glory...now and ever" at the end of the stichera aposticha; theotokia dogmatica, which are sung after "Both now and ever" at the end of the stichera at "Lord, I call" and contain dogmatic teaching concerning the incarnation and dual nature of Christ; and dismissal theotokia, daily and resurrectional, sung at the end of the dismissal troparia at the end of Vespers and at Matins after "The Lord is God."
Thrice-Holy Back to Top
Tone Back to Top
a term that refers to either the sum total of melodic formulae (popevki) performed within a particular trichord or tetrachord of the ecclesiatical gamut (scale), or to a characteristic pattern of melodic phrases, within the framework of which a given church hymn is performed. The system of Orthodox church singing has eight such groupings, which form the system of Eight Tones.
Triodion Back to Top
an incomplete kanon, which consists of three odes. The odes of a t. are based on the same 9 canticles of Scripture as those of a full kanon. The t. always includes the 8th and 9th odes, but these are preceded by one more ode: the 1st on Monday, the 2nd on Tuesday, the 3rd on Wednesday, the 4th on Thursday, the 5th on Friday, and the 6th and 7th on Saturday, forming a tetraodion. The t. are sung and read during the weekdays of Lent at Matins, during the period from Easter to Pentecost at Compline, and also during the pre-feasts of Christmas, Theophany, and Transfiguration.
Trisagion Back to Top
(1) the hymn "Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us," which is sung at Divine Liturgy before the reading of the Apostle and Gospel. On certain feasts the T. is replaced by the verse "As many as have been baptized into Christ..." or "Before Thy Cross we bow down, O Master...." (2) the cycle of prayers that begins with the above words and includes the prayer "O Most Holy Trinity, have mercy on us..." and other brief sentences before the Lord's Prayer. In this form the T. is read at all the services of the daily cycle: Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Matins, and Hours, as well as at the beginning of private morning and evening prayers.
Troparion (pl. troparia) Back to Top
a term of Constantinopolitan origin indicating a refrain (and thus the equivalent of the Palestinian hypakoe and the Roman antiphon), in the form of a poetic composition, as opposed to a Scriptural text. Originally, t. served as responses to psalm verses sung by the chanter, i. e., as antiphons. This basic function still holds today, but the term is commonly used with reference to the following three types of t.: (1) dismissal troparia (apolytikia, otpustitel'ny), i. e., resurrectional troparia, troparia of the feast, troparia of the day -- hymns that keynote the main theme of the occasion being celebrated on a given day, first sung before the dismissal at Vespers and then repeated throughout the services of the day -- at Matins, Compline, Hours, and at the Divine Liturgy after the little entrance; (2) troparia evlogitaria -- sets of several t., each preceded by the refrain "Blessed art Thou, O Lord," sung at ResurrectionalMatins after the 17th Kathisma and at the Matins of Holy Saturday; and (3) troparia of the kanon -- brief verses that follow the heirmos in each ode of the kanon. The verses read at the Matins of Holy Saturday with the verses of Psalm 118  are also called t.
Twelve Great Feasts Back to Top
after the Pasch (the "feast of feasts") the most important feasts of the Orthodox liturgical year. The t. g. f. are divided into movable feasts: the Entrance of the Lord into Jerusalem (the Sunday before the Pasch), the Ascension of the Lord (40 days after the Pasch), and Pentecost (the Descent of the Holy Spirit) (50 days after the Pasch); and immovable feasts: the Nativity of the Theotokos (8/21 Sept.), the Elevation of the Cross (14/27 Sept.), the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple (21 Nov./4 Dec.), the Nativity of Christ (25 Dec./Jan. 7), the Theophany (the Baptism of Christ) (6/19 Jan.), the Meeting of the Lord in the Temple (2/15 Feb.), the Annunciation (25 Mar./7 April), the Transfigurguration (6/19 Aug.); and the Dormition of the Theotokos (15/28 Aug.).
Typikon Back to Top
a book that contains various rules of the monastic life, including instructions for celebrating divine services in the Orthodox Church throughout the entire year.